ACCOUNTING POLICIES AND ESTIMATES
|12 Months Ended|
Dec. 31, 2018
|Accounting Policies [Abstract]|
|ACCOUNTING POLICIES AND ESTIMATES||
The accompanying consolidated financial statements have been prepared in accordance with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles (“U.S. GAAP”).
All amounts referred to in the notes to the consolidated financial statements are in United States Dollars ($) unless stated otherwise.
The consolidated financial statements include the financial statements of the Company and its subsidiary in which it has a majority voting interest. All significant inter-company accounts and transactions have been eliminated in the consolidated financial statements. The entities included in these consolidated financial statements are as follows:
QPAGOS – Parent Company
Qpagos Corporation – 100% owned
Qpagos, S.A. P.I de C.V., a Mexican entity (99.996% owned)
Redpag Electrónicos, S.A. P.I. de C.V., a Mexican entity (99.990% owned)
The financial statements of the Company’s Mexican operations are measured using local currencies as their functional currencies.
The Company translates the assets and liabilities of its Mexican subsidiaries at the exchange rates in effect at year end and the results of operations at the average rate throughout the year. The translation adjustments are recorded directly as a separate component of stockholders’ equity, while transaction gains (losses) are included in net income (loss). All sales to customers are in Mexico.
The preparation of consolidated financial statements in conformity with U.S. GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions, which are evaluated on an ongoing basis, that affect the amounts reported in the consolidated financial statements and accompanying notes. Management bases its estimates on historical experience and on various other assumptions that it believes are reasonable under the circumstances, the results of which form the basis for making judgments about the carrying values of assets and liabilities and the amounts of revenues and expenses that are not readily apparent from other sources. Actual results could differ from those estimates and judgments. In particular, significant estimates and judgments include those related to: the estimated useful lives for plant and equipment, the fair value of warrants and stock options granted for services or compensation, estimates of the probability and potential magnitude of contingent liabilities, derivative liabilities, the valuation allowance for deferred tax assets due to continuing operating losses and the allowance for doubtful accounts.
Making estimates requires management to exercise significant judgment. It is at least reasonably possible that the estimate of the effect of a condition, situation or set of circumstances that existed at the date of the consolidated financial statements, which management considered in formulating its estimate could change in the near term due to one or more future confirming events. Accordingly, the actual results could differ significantly from our estimates.
Certain conditions may exist as of the date the financial statements are issued, which may result in a loss to the Company but which will only be resolved when one or more future events occur or fail to occur.
The Company’s management assesses such contingent liabilities, and such assessment inherently involves an exercise of judgment.
If the assessment of a contingency indicates that it is probable that a material loss has been incurred and the amount of the liability can be estimated, then the estimated liability would be accrued in the Company’s consolidated financial statements. If the assessment indicates that a potential material loss contingency is not probable but is reasonably possible, or is probable but cannot be estimated, then the nature of the contingent liability, together with an estimate of the range of possible loss if determinable and material would be disclosed. Loss contingencies considered to be remote by management are generally not disclosed unless they involve guarantees, in which case the guarantee would be disclosed.
The Company adopted the guidance of Accounting Standards Codification (“ASC”) 820 for fair value measurements which clarifies the definition of fair value, prescribes methods for measuring fair value, and establishes a fair value hierarchy to classify the inputs used in measuring fair value as follows:
Level 1-Inputs are unadjusted quoted prices in active markets for identical assets or liabilities available at the measurement date.
Level 2-Inputs are unadjusted quoted prices for similar assets and liabilities in active markets, quoted prices for identical or similar assets and liabilities in markets that are not active, inputs other than quoted prices that are observable, and inputs derived from or corroborated by observable market data.
Level 3-Inputs are unobservable inputs which reflect the reporting entity’s own assumptions on what assumptions the market participants would use in pricing the asset or liability based on the best available information.
The carrying amounts reported in the balance sheets for cash, accounts receivable, other current assets, other assets, accounts payable, accrued liabilities, and notes payable, approximate fair value due to the relatively short period to maturity for these instruments. The Company has identified the short term convertible notes and certain warrants attached to certain of the notes that are required to be presented on the balance sheets at fair value in accordance with the accounting guidance.
ASC 825–10 “Financial Instruments” allows entities to voluntarily choose to measure certain financial assets and liabilities at fair value (fair value option). The fair value option may be elected on an instrument-by-instrument basis and is irrevocable, unless a new election date occurs. If the fair value option is elected for an instrument, unrealized gains and losses for that instrument should be reported in earnings at each subsequent reporting date. We evaluate the fair value of variably priced derivative liabilities on a quarterly basis and report any movements thereon ibn earnings.
The Company’s operations will be subject to significant risk and uncertainties including financial, operational, regulatory and other risks associated, including the potential risk of business failure. The recent global economic crisis has caused a general tightening in the credit markets, lower levels of liquidity, increases in the rates of default and bankruptcy, and extreme volatility in credit, equity and fixed income markets. These conditions not only limit the Company’s access to capital, but also make it difficult for its customers, vendors and the Company to accurately forecast and plan future business activities.
The Company’s operations are carried out in Mexico. Accordingly, the Company’s business, financial condition and results of operations may be influenced by the political, economic and legal environment in Mexico and by the general state of that economy. The Company’s results may be adversely affected by changes in governmental policies with respect to laws and regulations, anti-inflationary measures, and rates and methods of taxation, among other things.
In February 2016, FASB issued Accounting Standards Update (“ASU”), No. 2016-02, Leases (Topic 842) (ASC 842)
The amendments in this update establishes a comprehensive new lease accounting model. The new standard: (a) clarifies the definition of a lease; (b) requires a dual approach to lease classification similar to current lease classifications; and (c) causes lessees to recognize leases on the balance sheet as a lease liability with a corresponding right-of-use asset for leases with a lease-term of more than twelve months. The new standard is effective for fiscal years and interim periods beginning after December 15, 2018, with early adoption permitted. A modified retrospective transition approach is required for leases existing at, or entered into after, the beginning of the earliest comparative period presented in the financial statements, including a number of optional practical expedients that entities may elect to apply. In July 2018, the FASB issued ASU No. 2018-11, Leases (Topic 842): Targeted Improvements, an update which provides another transition method, the prospective transition method, which allows entities to initially apply the new lease standard at the adoption date and recognize a cumulative-effect adjustment to the opening balance of retained earnings in the period of adoption. The Company will adopt the new standard on January 1, 2019 using the prospective transition method. In preparation for adoption of the standard.
The Company has identified all leases and reviewed the leases to determine the impact of ASC 842 on its consolidated financial statements. The Company has elected to apply all of the practical expedients to its leases, which include not reassessing (1) whether any expired or existing contracts are or contain leases, (2) lease classification for any expired or existing leases, and (3) initial direct costs for any existing leases, and (4) not separating the components of leases into lease and non-lease components. Based on the Company’s assessment, the Company has concluded that the adoption of the new standard will result in the recording of a right-of-use asset and a lease liability on the consolidated balance sheet on January 1, 2019. While substantially complete, the Company is still in the process of finalizing its evaluation of the effect of ASC 842 on its financial statements and disclosures. The Company does not expect the adoption of ASU 2016-02, as amended, to have a material impact on its consolidated statements of operations or consolidated statements of cash flows.
In February 2018, the FASB issued ASU 2018-3 Technical Corrections and Improvements to Financial Instruments – Overall (Sub topic 825-10), Recognition and Measurement of Financial Assets and Financial Liabilities.
The amendment clarifies that an entity measuring an equity security using the measurement alternative may change its measurement approach to a fair value method in accordance with Topic 820, Fair Value Measurement, through an irrevocable election that would apply to that security and all identical or similar investments of the same issuer. Once an entity makes this election, the entity should measure all future purchases of identical or similar investments of the same issuer using a fair value method in accordance with Topic 820.
The amendment clarifies that the adjustments made under the measurement alternative are intended to reflect the fair value of the security as of the date that the observable transaction for a similar security took place.
The amendment clarifies that remeasuring the entire value of forward contracts and purchased options is required when observable transactions occur on the underlying equity securities.
The amendment clarifies that when the fair value option is elected for a financial liability, the guidance in paragraph 825-10-45-5 should be applied, regardless of whether the fair value option was elected under either Subtopic 815-15, Derivatives and Hedging—Embedded Derivatives, or 825-10, Financial Instruments—Overall.
The amendments clarify that for financial liabilities for which the fair value option is elected, the amount of change in fair value that relates to the instrument specific credit risk should first be measured in the currency of denomination when presented separately from the total change in fair value of the financial liability. Then, both components of the change in the fair value of the liability should be remeasured into the functional currency of the reporting entity using end-of-period spot rates.
The amendment clarifies that the prospective transition approach for equity securities without a readily determinable fair value in the amendments in Update 2016-01 is meant only for instances in which the measurement alternative is applied. An insurance entity subject to the guidance in Topic 944, Financial Services—Insurance, should apply a prospective transition method for Correction or Improvement Summary of Amendments when applying the amendments related to equity securities without readily determinable fair values. An insurance entity should apply the selected prospective transition method consistently to the entity’s entire population of equity securities for which the measurement alternative is elected.
The amendments in this Update are effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2017, and interim periods within those fiscal years beginning after June 15, 2018. All entities may early adopt these amendments for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2017, including interim periods within those fiscal years, as long as they have adopted Update 2016-01.
The amendments in this update are not expected to have a material impact on the consolidated financial statements.
In June 2018, the FASB issued ASU 2018-07, Compensation—Stock Compensation (Topic 718) Improvements to Nonemployee Share-Based Payment Accounting.
The amendments in this Update expand the scope of Topic 718 to include share-based payment transactions for acquiring goods and services from nonemployees. An entity should apply the requirements of Topic 718 to nonemployee awards except for specific guidance on inputs to an option pricing model and the attribution of cost (that is, the period of time over which share-based payment awards vest and the pattern of cost recognition over that period). The amendments specify that Topic 718 applies to all share-based payment transactions in which a grantor acquires goods or services to be used or consumed in a grantor’s own operations by issuing share-based payment awards. The amendments also clarify that Topic 718 does not apply to share-based payments used to effectively provide (1) financing to the issuer or (2) awards granted in conjunction with selling goods or services to customers as part of a contract accounted for under Topic 606, Revenue from Contracts with Customers.
The amendments in this Update are effective for public business entities for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2018, including interim periods within that fiscal year. Early adoption is permitted, but no earlier than an entity’s adoption date of Topic 606.
The impact of this ASU on the consolidated financial statements is not expected to be material.
In July 2018, the FASB issued ASU 2018-11, Leases (Topic 842) Targeted Improvements.
The amendments in this Update provide entities with an additional (and optional) transition method to adopt the new leases standard. Under this new transition method, an entity initially applies the new leases standard at the adoption date and recognizes a cumulative-effect adjustment to the opening balance of retained earnings in the period of adoption consistent with preparers’ requests.
The amendments in this Update provide lessors with a practical expedient, by class of underlying asset, to not separate non-lease components from the associated lease component and, instead, to account for those components as a single component if the non-lease components otherwise would be accounted for under the new revenue guidance (Topic 606) and both of the following are met: 1. The timing and pattern of transfer of the non-lease component(s) and associated lease component are the same. 2. The lease component, if accounted for separately, would be classified as an operating lease.
The amendments in this Update related to separating components of a contract affect the amendments in Update 2016-02, which are not yet effective but can be early adopted.
The Company is currently considering the impact this ASU will have on its consolidated financial statements.
In August 2018, the FASB issued ASU 2018-13, Fair Value Measurement (Topic 820) Changes to the Disclosure Requirements for Fair Value Measurement.
The amendments in this Update modify the disclosure requirements on fair value measurements in Topic 820, Fair Value Measurement.
The following disclosure requirements were removed from Topic 820:
The following disclosure requirements were modified in Topic 820:
The following disclosure requirements were added to Topic 820:
In addition, the amendments clarify that materiality is an appropriate consideration of entities and their auditors when evaluating disclosure requirements.
The amendments in this Update are effective for all entities for fiscal years, and interim periods within those fiscal years, beginning after December 15, 2019. The amendments on changes in unrealized gains and losses, the range and weighted average of significant unobservable inputs used to develop Level 3 fair value measurements, and the narrative description of measurement uncertainty should be applied prospectively for only the most recent interim or annual period presented in the initial fiscal year of adoption. All other amendments should be applied retrospectively to all periods presented upon their effective date. Early adoption is permitted upon issuance of this Update. An entity is permitted to early adopt any removed or modified disclosures upon issuance of this Update and delay adoption of the additional disclosures until their effective date.
The impact of this ASU on the consolidated financial statements is not expected to be material.
In November 2018, the FASB issued ASU 2018-18, Collaborative Arrangements (Topic 808) Clarifying the Interaction between Topic 808 and Topic 606.
A collaborative arrangement, as defined by the guidance in Topic 808, is a contractual arrangement under which two or more parties actively participate in a joint operating activity and are exposed to significant risks and rewards that depend on the activity’s commercial success. Topic 808 does not provide comprehensive recognition or measurement guidance for collaborative arrangements, and the accounting for those arrangements is often based on an analogy to other accounting literature or an accounting policy election.
The amendments in this Update provide guidance on whether certain transactions between collaborative arrangement participants should be accounted for with revenue under Topic 606. The amendments in this Update make targeted improvements to generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP) for collaborative arrangements as follows:
For public business entities, the amendments in this Update are effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2019, and interim periods within those fiscal years. Early adoption is permitted, including adoption in any interim period. An entity may not adopt the amendments earlier than its adoption date of Topic 606. The amendments in this Update should be applied retrospectively to the date of initial application of Topic 606. An entity should recognize the cumulative effect of initially applying the amendments as an adjustment to the opening balance of retained earnings of the later of the earliest annual period presented and the annual period that includes the date of the entity’s initial application of Topic 606. An entity may elect to apply the amendments in this Update retrospectively either to all contracts or only to contracts that are not completed at the date of initial application of Topic 606. An entity should disclose its election.
The impact of this ASU on the consolidated financial statements is not expected to be material.
Any new accounting standards, not disclosed above, that have been issued or proposed by FASB that do not require adoption until a future date are not expected to have a material impact on the financial statements upon adoption.
No segmental information is required as the Company currently only has one segment of business, providing physical and virtual payment services in the Mexican Market.
The Company considers all highly liquid investments with original maturities of three months or less at the time of purchase to be cash equivalents. At December 31, 2018 and December 31, 2017, respectively, the Company had no cash equivalents.
The Company minimizes credit risk associated with cash by periodically evaluating the credit quality of its primary financial institution in the United States. The balance at times may exceed federally insured limits. At December 31, 2018 and 2017, the balance did not exceed the federally insured limit.
Accounts receivable are reported at realizable value, net of allowances for doubtful accounts, which is estimated and recorded in the period the related revenue is recorded. The Company has a standardized approach to estimate and review the collectability of its receivables based on a number of factors, including the period they have been outstanding. Historical collection and payer reimbursement experience is an integral part of the estimation process related to allowances for doubtful accounts. In addition, the Company regularly assesses the state of its billing operations in order to identify issues, which may impact the collectability of these receivables or reserve estimates. Revisions to the allowance for doubtful accounts estimates are recorded as an adjustment to bad debt expense. Receivables deemed uncollectible are charged against the allowance for doubtful accounts at the time such receivables are written-off. Recoveries of receivables previously written-off are recorded as credits to the allowance for doubtful accounts. There were no recoveries during the period ended December 31, 2018 and 2017.
Investee companies not accounted for under the consolidation or the equity method are accounted for under the cost method of accounting. Under this method, the Company’s share of earnings or losses of such investee companies is not included in the consolidated balance sheet or statement of operations and comprehensive loss. However, impairment charges are recognized in the consolidated statement of operations and comprehensive loss. If circumstances suggest that the value of the investee company has subsequently recovered, such recovery is not recorded. There is no impairment of investment at December 31, 2018.
The Company primarily values inventories at the lower of cost or net realizable value applied on a first-in, first-out basis. The Company identifies and writes down its excess and obsolete inventories to net realizable value based on usage forecasts, order volume and inventory aging. With the development of new products, the Company also rationalizes its product offerings and will write-down discontinued product to the lower of cost or net realizable value.
Other than the sale of kiosks to customers, the provision of services through our kiosks is conducted on a cash basis. Customers are required to deposit cash with the Company to meet anticipated demand for services provided through kiosks either owned or operated by them. The services provided through the customer owned or operated kiosks are deducted from the deposits held on their behalf, the Company requires that these deposits be replenished as and when the services are provided.
Plant and equipment is stated at cost, less accumulated depreciation. Plant and equipment with costs greater than $1,000 are capitalized and depreciated. Depreciation is computed using the straight-line method over the estimated useful lives of the assets. The estimated useful lives of the assets are as follows:
The cost of repairs and maintenance is expensed as incurred. When assets are retired or disposed of, the cost and accumulated depreciation are removed from the accounts, and any resulting gains or losses are included in income in the year of disposition.
All of our intangible assets are subject to amortization. We evaluate the recoverability of intangible assets periodically by taking into account events or circumstances that may warrant revised estimates of useful lives or that indicate the asset may be impaired. Where intangibles are deemed to be impaired we recognize an impairment loss measured as the difference between the estimated fair value of the intangible and its book value.
License agreements acquired by the Company are reported at acquisition value less accumulated amortization and impairments.
Amortization is reported in the statement of operations on a straight-line basis over the estimated useful life of the intangible assets, unless the useful life is indefinite. Amortizable intangible assets are amortized from the date that they are available for use. The estimated useful life of the license agreement is five years which is the expected period for which we expect to derive a benefit from the underlying license agreements.
Assets are reviewed for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of an asset may not be recoverable. Recoverability of assets to be held and used is measured by a comparison of the carrying amount of an asset to future undiscounted net cash flows expected to be generated by the asset. If such assets are considered impaired, the impairment to be recognized is measured by the amount by which the carrying amount of the assets exceeds the fair value of the assets.
The Company’s revenue recognition policy is consistent with the requirements of Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) Accounting Standards Codification (ASC) 606, Revenue.
The Company has analyzed its revenue transaction pursuant to ASC 606, Revenue, and it has no material impact as a result of the transition from ASC 605 to 606. The Company’s revenues are recognized when control of the promised goods or services are transferred to a customer, in an amount that reflects the consideration that the Company expects to receive in exchange for those services. The Company derives its revenues from the sale of its services, as defined below. The Company applies the following five steps in order to determine the appropriate amount of revenue to be recognized as it fulfills its obligations under each of its revenue transactions:
The Company has the following sources of revenue which is recognized on the basis described below.
Prepaid services are acquired from providers and is sold to end-users through kiosks that the Company owns or kiosks that are owned by third parties. The Company recognizes the revenue on the sale of these services when the end-user deposits funds into the terminal and the prepaid service is delivered to the end-user. The revenue is recognized at the gross value, including margin, of the prepaid service to the Company, net of any value-added tax which is collected on behalf of the Mexican Revenue Authorities.
The Company provides a secure means for end-users to pay for certain services, such as utilities through its kiosks. The Company earns either a fixed per-transaction fee or a fixed percentage of the service sold. The Company acts as a collection agent and recognizes the payment processing fee, net of any value-added taxes collected on behalf of the Mexican Revenue Authorities, when the funds are deposited into the kiosk and the customer has settled his liability or has acquired a prepaid service.
The Company imports, assembles and sell kiosks that are used to generate the revenues discussed above. Revenue is recognized on the full value of the kiosks sold, net of any valued added taxation collected on behalf of the Mexican Revenue Authorities, when the customer takes delivery of the kiosk and all the risks and rewards of ownership are passed to the customer.
The Company does not enter into any leasing of kiosks arrangements with customers and the Company does not generate any revenues from merchants who access its terminals as yet.
Generally, all forms of share-based payments, including stock option grants, restricted stock grants and stock appreciation rights are measured at their fair value on the awards’ grant date, based on the estimated number of awards that are ultimately expected to vest. Share-based compensation awards issued to non-employees for services rendered are recorded at either the fair value of the services rendered or the fair value of the share-based payment, whichever is more readily determinable. The expense resulting from share-based payments is recorded in operating expenses in the consolidated statement of operations.
Prior to the Company’s reverse merger which took place on May 12, 2016, all share-based payments were based on management’s estimate of market value of the Company’s equity. The factors considered in determining managements estimate of market value includes, assumptions of future revenues, expected cash flows, market acceptability of our technology and the current market conditions. These assumptions are complex and highly subjective, compounded by the business being in its early stage of development in a new market with limited data available.
Where equity transactions with arms-length third parties, who had applied their own assumptions and estimates in determining the market value of our equity, had taken place prior to and within a reasonable time frame of any share-based payments, the value of those share transactions have been used as the fair value for any share-based equity payments.
Where equity transactions with arms-length third parties, included both shares and warrants, the value of the warrants have been eliminated from the unit price of the securities using a Black-Scholes valuation model to determine the value of the warrants. The assumptions used in the Black Scholes valuation model includes market related interest rates for risk-free government issued treasury securities with similar maturities; the expected volatility of the Company’s common stock based on companies operating in similar industries and markets; the estimated stock price of the Company; the expected dividend yield of the Company and; the expected life of the warrants being valued.
Subsequent to the Company’s reverse merger which took place on May 12, 2016, the Company has utilized the market value of its common stock as quoted on the OTCQB, as an indicator of the fair value of its common stock in determining share- based payment arrangements.
ASC 815 generally provides three criteria that, if met, require companies to bifurcate conversion options from their host instruments and account for them as free standing derivative financial instruments. These three criteria include circumstances in which (a) the economic characteristics and risks of the embedded derivative instrument are not clearly and closely related to the economic characteristics and risks of the host contract, (b) the hybrid instrument that embodies both the embedded derivative instrument and the host contract is not re- measured at fair value under otherwise applicable generally accepted accounting principles with changes in fair value reported in earnings as they occur and (c) a separate instrument with the same terms as the embedded derivative instrument would be considered a derivative instrument subject to the requirements of ASC 815. ASC 815 also provides an exception to this rule when the host instrument is deemed to be conventional, as described.
The Company’s primary operations are based in Mexico and currently enacted tax laws in Mexico are used in the calculation of income taxes, the holding company is based in the US and currently enacted US tax laws are used in the calculation of income taxes.
Income taxes are computed using the asset and liability method. Under the asset and liability method, deferred income tax assets and liabilities are determined based on the differences between the financial reporting and tax bases of assets and liabilities and are measured using the currently enacted tax rates and laws. A full valuation allowance is provided for the amount of deferred tax assets that, based on available evidence, are not expected to be realized. It is the Company’s policy to classify interest and penalties on income taxes as interest expense or penalties expense. As of December 31, 2018, and 2017, there have been no interest or penalties incurred on income taxes.
Comprehensive income is defined as the change in equity of a company during a period from transactions and other events and circumstances excluding transactions resulting from investments from owners and distributions to owners. For the Company, comprehensive income for the periods presented includes translation adjustment and net loss.
Certain prior year amounts have been reclassified for consistency with the current year presentation. These reclassifications had no effect on the reported results of operations.
The entire disclosure for all significant accounting policies of the reporting entity.
Reference 1: http://fasb.org/us-gaap/role/ref/legacyRef