Quarterly report pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d)

ACCOUNTING POLICIES AND ESTIMATES

v3.10.0.1
ACCOUNTING POLICIES AND ESTIMATES
9 Months Ended
Sep. 30, 2018
Accounting Policies [Abstract]  
ACCOUNTING POLICIES AND ESTIMATES
2 ACCOUNTING POLICIES AND ESTIMATES

 

  a) Basis of Presentation

 

The accompanying unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements have been prepared in accordance with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles (“U.S. GAAP”) for interim financial information with the instructions to Form 10-Q and Rule 8-03 of Regulation S-X. Accordingly, these unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements do not include all of the information and disclosures required by U.S. GAAP for complete financial statements. In the opinion of management, the accompanying unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements include all adjustments (consisting only of normal recurring adjustments), which the Company considers necessary, for a fair presentation of those financial statements. The results of operations and cash flows for the three months and nine months ended September 30, 2018 may not necessarily be indicative of results that may be expected for any succeeding quarter or for the entire fiscal year. The information contained in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q should be read in conjunction with the audited financial statements of QPAGOS for the year ended December 31, 2017, included in the Annual Report on Form 10-K as filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission (the “SEC”) on April 17, 2018.

 

All amounts referred to in the notes to the unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements are in United States Dollars ($) unless stated otherwise.

 

  b) Principles of Consolidation

 

The unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements include the financial statements of the Company and its wholly owned subsidiary and its indirect subsidiaries. All significant inter-company accounts and transactions have been eliminated in the consolidated financial statements. The entities included in these consolidated financial statements are as follows:

 

QPAGOS – Parent Company 

Qpagos Corporation – 100% owned 

Qpagos, S.A.P.I de C.V., a Mexican entity (99.996% owned) 

Redpag Electrónicos, S.A.P.I. de C.V., a Mexican entity (99.990% owned)

 

  c) Mexican Operations

 

The financial statements of the Company’s Mexican operations are measured using local currencies as their functional currencies.

 

The Company translates the assets and liabilities of its Mexican subsidiaries at the exchange rates in effect at period end and the results of operations at the average rate throughout the period. The translation adjustments are recorded directly as a separate component of stockholders’ equity, while transaction gains (losses) are included in net income (loss). All sales to customers are in Mexico.

 

  d) Use of Estimates

 

The preparation of unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements in conformity with U.S. GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions, which are evaluated on an ongoing basis, that affect the amounts reported in the unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements and accompanying notes. Management bases its estimates on historical experience and on various other assumptions that it believes are reasonable under the circumstances, the results of which form the basis for making judgments about the carrying values of assets and liabilities and the amounts of revenues and expenses that are not readily apparent from other sources. Actual results could differ from those estimates and judgments. In particular, significant estimates and judgments include those related to: the estimated useful lives for plant and equipment, the fair value of warrants and stock options granted for services or compensation, estimates of the probability and potential magnitude of contingent liabilities, derivative liabilities, the valuation allowance for deferred tax assets due to continuing operating losses, those related to revenue recognition and the allowance for doubtful accounts.

 

Making estimates requires management to exercise significant judgment. It is at least reasonably possible that the estimate of the effect of a condition, situation or set of circumstances that existed at the date of the consolidated financial statements, which management considered in formulating its estimate could change in the near-term due to one or more future confirming events. Accordingly, the actual results could differ significantly from our estimates.

 

  e) Contingencies

 

Certain conditions may exist as of the date the financial statements are issued, which may result in a loss to the Company, but which will only be resolved when one or more future events occur or fail to occur.

 

The Company’s management assesses such contingent liabilities, and such assessment inherently involves an exercise of judgment.

 

If the assessment of a contingency indicates that it is probable that a material loss has been incurred and the amount of the liability can be estimated, then the estimated liability would be accrued in the Company’s consolidated financial statements. If the assessment indicates that a potential material loss contingency is not probable but is reasonably possible, or is probable but cannot be estimated, then the nature of the contingent liability, together with an estimate of the range of possible loss if determinable and material would be disclosed. Loss contingencies considered to be remote by management are generally not disclosed unless they involve guarantees, in which case the guarantee would be disclosed.

 

  f) Fair Value of Financial Instruments

 

The Company adopted the guidance of Accounting Standards Codification (“ASC”) 820 for fair value measurements which clarifies the definition of fair value, prescribes methods for measuring fair value, and establishes a fair value hierarchy to classify the inputs used in measuring fair value as follows:

 

Level 1-Inputs are unadjusted quoted prices in active markets for identical assets or liabilities available at the measurement date.

 

Level 2-Inputs are unadjusted quoted prices for similar assets and liabilities in active markets, quoted prices for identical or similar assets and liabilities in markets that are not active, inputs other than quoted prices that are observable, and inputs derived from or corroborated by observable market data.

 

Level 3-Inputs are unobservable inputs which reflect the reporting entity’s own assumptions on what assumptions the market participants would use in pricing the asset or liability based on the best available information.

 

The carrying amounts reported in the balance sheets for cash, accounts receivable, other current assets, other assets, accounts payable, accrued liabilities, and notes payable, approximate fair value due to the relatively short period to maturity for these instruments. The Company did not identify any other assets or liabilities that are required to be presented on the balance sheets at fair value in accordance with the accounting guidance.

 

ASC 825-10 “Financial Instruments” allows entities to voluntarily choose to measure certain financial assets and liabilities at fair value (fair value option). The fair value option may be elected on an instrument-by-instrument basis and is irrevocable, unless a new election date occurs. If the fair value option is elected for an instrument, unrealized gains and losses for that instrument should be reported in earnings at each subsequent reporting date. The Company did not elect to apply the fair value option to any outstanding instruments.

 

  g) Risks and Uncertainties

 

The Company’s operations will be subject to significant risk and uncertainties including financial, operational, regulatory and other risks, including the potential risk of business failure. The recent global economic crisis has caused a general tightening in the credit markets, lower levels of liquidity, increases in the rates of default and bankruptcy, and extreme volatility in credit, equity and fixed income markets. These conditions not only limit the Company’s access to capital, but also make it difficult for its customers, vendors and the Company to accurately forecast and plan future business activities.

 

The Company’s operations are carried out in Mexico. Accordingly, the Company’s business, financial condition and results of operations may be influenced by the political, economic and legal environment in Mexico and by the general state of that economy. The Company’s results may be adversely affected by changes in governmental policies with respect to laws and regulations, anti-inflationary measures, and rates and methods of taxation, among other things.

 

  h) Recent Accounting Pronouncements

 

In August 2018, the FASB issued ASU 2018-13, Fair Value Measurement (Topic 820) Changes to the Disclosure Requirements for Fair Value Measurement.

 

The amendments in this Update modify the disclosure requirements on fair value measurements in Topic 820, Fair Value Measurement.

 

Removals

The following disclosure requirements were removed from Topic 820:

  1. The amount of and reasons for transfers between Level 1 and Level 2 of the fair value hierarchy.

  2. The policy for timing of transfers between levels.

  3. The valuation processes for Level 3 fair value measurements.

  4. For nonpublic entities, the changes in unrealized gains and losses for the period included in earnings for recurring Level 3 fair value measurements held at the end of the reporting period.

 

Modifications 

The following disclosure requirements were modified in Topic 820: 

  1. In lieu of a rollforward for Level 3 fair value measurements, a nonpublic entity is required to disclose transfers into and out of Level 3 of the fair value hierarchy and purchases and issues of Level 3 assets and liabilities.

  2. For investments in certain entities that calculate net asset value, an entity is required to disclose the timing of liquidation of an investee’s assets and the date when restrictions from redemption might lapse only if the investee has communicated the timing to the entity or announced the timing publicly.

  3. The amendments clarify that the measurement uncertainty disclosure is to communicate information about the uncertainty in measurement as of the reporting date.

 

Additions 

The following disclosure requirements were added to Topic 820; however, the disclosures are not required for nonpublic entities: 

  1. The changes in unrealized gains and losses for the period included in other comprehensive income for recurring Level 3 fair value measurements held at the end of the reporting period.

  2. The range and weighted average of significant unobservable inputs used to develop Level 3 fair value measurements. For certain unobservable inputs, an entity may disclose other quantitative information (such as the median or arithmetic average) in lieu of the weighted average if the entity determines that other quantitative information would be a more reasonable and rational method to reflect the distribution of unobservable inputs used to develop Level 3 fair value measurements.

 

In addition, the amendments eliminate at a minimum from the phrase an entity shall disclose at a minimum to promote the appropriate exercise of discretion by entities when considering fair value measurement disclosures and to clarify that materiality is an appropriate consideration of entities and their auditors when evaluating disclosure requirements.

 

The amendments in this Update are effective for all entities for fiscal years, and interim periods within those fiscal years, beginning after December 15, 2019. The amendments on changes in unrealized gains and losses, the range and weighted average of significant unobservable inputs used to develop Level 3 fair value measurements, and the narrative description of measurement uncertainty should be applied prospectively for only the most recent interim or annual period presented in the initial fiscal year of adoption. All other amendments should be applied retrospectively to all periods presented upon their effective date. Early adoption is permitted upon issuance of this Update. An entity is permitted to early adopt any removed or modified disclosures upon issuance of this Update and delay adoption of the additional disclosures until their effective date.

 

The Company does not anticipate that the implementation of this guidance would have a material impact on the Company.

 

In August , the FASB issued ASU 2018-15, Intangibles – Goodwill and Other Internal – Use Software (Subtopic 350-40).

 

The amendments in this Update align the requirements for capitalizing implementation costs incurred in a hosting arrangement that is a service contract with the requirements for capitalizing implementation costs incurred to develop or obtain internal-use software (and hosting arrangements that include an internal use software license). The accounting for the service element of a hosting arrangement that is a service contract is not affected by the amendments in this Update.

 

The amendments in this Update require an entity (customer) in a hosting arrangement that is a service contract to follow the guidance in Subtopic 350-40 to determine which implementation costs to capitalize as an asset related to the service contract and which costs to expense. Costs to develop or obtain internal-use software that cannot be capitalized under Subtopic 350-40, such as training costs and certain data conversion costs, also cannot be capitalized for a hosting arrangement that is a service contract. Therefore, an entity (customer) in a hosting arrangement that is a service contract determines which project stage (that is, preliminary project stage, application development stage, or postimplementation stage) an implementation activity relates to. Costs for implementation activities in the application development stage are capitalized depending on the nature of the costs, while costs incurred during the preliminary project and postimplementation stages are expensed as the activities are performed.

 

The amendments in this Update also require the entity (customer) to expense the capitalized implementation costs of a hosting arrangement that is a service contract over the term of the hosting arrangement. The term of the hosting arrangement includes the non-cancellable period of the arrangement plus periods covered by (1) an option to extend the arrangement if the customer is reasonably certain to exercise that option, (2) an option to terminate the arrangement if the customer is reasonably certain not to exercise the termination option, and (3) an option to extend (or not to terminate) the arrangement in which exercise of the option is in the control of the vendor. The entity also is required to apply the existing impairment guidance in Subtopic 350-40 to the capitalized implementation costs as if the costs were long-lived assets. The amendments in this Update clarify that the capitalized implementation costs related to each module or component of a hosting arrangement that is a service contract are also subject to the guidance in Subtopic 360-10 on abandonment.

 

The amendments in this Update also require the entity to present the expense related to the capitalized implementation costs in the same line item in the statement of income as the fees associated with the hosting element (service) of the arrangement and classify payments for capitalized implementation costs in the statement of cash flows in the same manner as payments made for fees associated with the hosting element. The entity is also required to present the capitalized implementation costs in the statement of financial position in the same line item that a prepayment for the fees of the associated hosting arrangement would be presented.

 

The amendments in this Update are effective for public business entities for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2019, and interim periods within those fiscal years. For all other entities, the amendments in this Update are effective for annual reporting periods beginning after December 15, 2020, and interim periods within annual periods beginning after December 15, 2021. Early adoption of the amendments in this Update is permitted, including adoption in any interim period, for all entities.

 

The amendments in this Update should be applied either retrospectively or prospectively to all implementation costs incurred after the date of adoption.

 

The Company does not anticipate that the implementation of this guidance would have a material impact on the Company.

 

In October 2018, the FASB issued ASU 2018-17, Consolidation (Topic 810), Targeted Improvements to Related Party Guidance for Variable Interest Entities.

 

Under the amendments in this Update, a private company (reporting entity) may elect not to apply Variable Interest Entity (“VIE”) guidance to legal entities under common control (including common control leasing arrangements) if both the parent and the legal entity being evaluated for consolidation are not public business entities. The accounting alternative provides an accounting policy election that a private company will apply to all current and future legal entities under common control that meet the criteria for applying this alternative. In other words, the alternative cannot be applied to select common control arrangements that meet the criteria for applying this accounting alternative. If the alternative is elected, a private company should continue to apply other consolidation guidance, particularly the voting interest entity guidance, unless another scope exception applies.

 

Under the accounting alternative, a private company should provide detailed disclosures about its involvement with and exposure to the legal entity under common control. Effectively, the amendments in this Update expand the private company alternative provided by Accounting Standards Update No. 2014-07, Consolidation (Topic 810): Applying Variable Interest Entities Guidance to Common Control Leasing Arrangements, not to apply the VIE guidance to qualifying common control leasing arrangements. Because the private company accounting alternative in this Update applies to all common control arrangements that meet specific criteria and not just leasing arrangements, the amendments in Update 2014-07 are superseded by the amendments in this Update.

 

Decision-Making Fees

 

Indirect interests held through related parties in common control arrangements should be considered on a proportional basis for determining whether fees paid to decision makers and service providers are variable interests. This is consistent with how indirect interests held through related parties under common control are considered for determining whether a reporting entity must consolidate a VIE.

 

For entities other than private companies, the amendments in this Update are effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2019, and interim periods within those fiscal years. The amendments in this Update are effective for a private company for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2020, and interim periods within fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2021. All entities are required to apply the amendments in this Update retrospectively with a cumulative-effect adjustment to retained earnings at the beginning of the earliest period presented. Early adoption is permitted.

 

Any new accounting standards, not disclosed above, that have been issued or proposed by FASB that do not require adoption until a future date are not expected to have a material impact on the financial statements upon adoption.

 

The Company does not anticipate that the implementation of this guidance would have a material impact on the Company.

 

  i) Reporting by segment

 

No segmental information is required as the Company currently only has one segment of business, providing physical and virtual payment services in the Mexican Market.

 

  j) Cash and Cash Equivalents

 

The Company considers all highly liquid investments with original maturities of three months or less at the time of purchase to be cash equivalents. At September 30, 2018 and December 31, 2017, respectively, the Company had no cash equivalents.

 

The Company assesses credit risk associated with cash by periodically evaluating the credit quality of its primary financial institution in the United States. The balance at times may exceed federally insured limits. At September 30, 2018 and December 31, 2017, cash balances in the United States did not exceed the federally insured limit.

 

  k) Accounts Receivable and Allowance for Doubtful Accounts

 

Accounts receivable are reported at realizable value, net of allowances for doubtful accounts, which is estimated and recorded in the period the related revenue is recorded. The Company has a standardized approach to estimate and review the collectability of its receivables based on a number of factors, including the period they have been outstanding. Historical collection and payer reimbursement experience is an integral part of the estimation process related to allowances for doubtful accounts. In addition, the Company regularly assesses the state of its billing operations in order to identify issues, which may impact the collectability of these receivables or reserve estimates. Revisions to the allowance for doubtful accounts estimates are recorded as an adjustment to bad debt expense. Receivables deemed uncollectible are charged against the allowance for doubtful accounts at the time such receivables are written-off. Recoveries of receivables previously written-off are recorded as credits to the allowance for doubtful accounts. There were no recoveries during the three months and nine months ended September 30, 2018 and December 2017.

 

  l) Cost Method Investments

 

Investee companies not accounted for under the consolidation or the equity method are accounted for under the cost method of accounting. Under this method, the Company’s share of earnings or losses of such investee companies is not included in the condensed consolidated balance sheet or statement of operations and comprehensive loss. However, impairment charges are recognized in the condensed consolidated statement of operations and comprehensive loss. If circumstances suggest that the value of the investee company has subsequently recovered, such recovery is not recorded. There is no impairment of investment at September 30, 2018 and December 31, 2017.

 

  m) Inventory

 

The Company primarily values inventories at net realizable value applied on a first-in, first-out basis. The Company identifies and writes down its excess and obsolete inventories to net realizable value based on usage forecasts, order volume and inventory aging. With the development of new products, the Company also rationalizes its product offerings and will write-down discontinued product to the lower of cost or net realizable value.

 

  n) Advances received from customers

 

Other than the sale of kiosks to customers, the provision of services through the Company’s kiosks is conducted on a cash basis. Customers are required to deposit cash with the Company to meet anticipated demand for services provided through kiosks either owned or operated by them. The services provided through the customer owned or operated kiosks are deducted from the deposits held on their behalf, the Company requires that these deposits be replenished as and when the services are provided.

 

  o) Plant and equipment

 

Plant and equipment is stated at cost, less accumulated depreciation. Plant and equipment with costs greater than $1,000 are capitalized and depreciated. Depreciation is computed using the straight-line method over the estimated useful lives of the assets. The estimated useful lives of the assets are as follows:

 

Description Estimated Useful Life
Kiosks 7 years
Computer equipment 3 years
Leasehold improvements Lesser of estimated useful life or life of lease
Office equipment 10 years

 

The cost of repairs and maintenance is expensed as incurred. When assets are retired or disposed of, the cost and accumulated depreciation are removed from the accounts, and any resulting gains or losses are included in income in the year of disposition.

 

  p) Intangibles

 

All of the Company’s intangible assets are subject to amortization. The Company evaluates the recoverability of intangible assets periodically by taking into account events or circumstances that may warrant revised estimates of useful lives or that indicate the asset may be impaired. Where intangibles are deemed to be impaired, the Company recognizes an impairment loss measured as the difference between the estimated fair value of the intangible and its book value.

 

i) License Agreements

 

License agreements acquired by the Company are reported at acquisition value less accumulated amortization and impairments.

 

ii) Amortization

 

Amortization is reported in the income statement on a straight-line basis over the estimated useful life of the intangible assets, unless the useful life is indefinite. Amortizable intangible assets are amortized from the date that they are available for use. The estimated useful life of the license agreement is five years which is the expected period for which the Company expects to derive a benefit from the underlying license agreements.

 

  q) Long-Term Assets

 

Assets are reviewed for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of an asset may not be recoverable. Recoverability of assets to be held and used is measured by a comparison of the carrying amount of an asset to future undiscounted net cash flows expected to be generated by the asset. If such assets are considered impaired, the impairment to be recognized is measured by the amount by which the carrying amount of the assets exceeds the fair value of the assets.

 

  r) Revenue Recognition

 

The Company’s revenue recognition policy is consistent with the requirements of Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) Accounting Standards Codification (ASC) 606, Revenue.

 

The Company has analyzed its revenue transaction pursuant to ASC 606, Revenue, and it has no material impact as a result of the transition from ASC 605 to 606. The Company’s revenues are recognized when control of the promised goods or services are transferred to a customer, in an amount that reflects the consideration that the Company expects to receive in exchange for those services. The Company derives its revenues from the sale of its services, as defined below. The Company applies the following five steps in order to determine the appropriate amount of revenue to be recognized as it fulfills its obligations under each of its revenue transactions:

 

  i. identify the contract with a customer;

 

  ii. identify the performance obligations in the contract;

 

  iii. determine the transaction price;

 

  iv. allocate the transaction price to performance obligations in the contract; and

 

  v. recognize revenue as the performance obligation is satisfied.

 

The Company has the following sources of revenue which is recognized on the basis described below.

 

  Revenue from the sale of services.

 

Prepaid services are acquired from providers and is sold to end-users through kiosks that the Company owns or kiosks that are owned by third parties. The Company recognizes the revenue on the sale of these services when the end-user deposits funds into the terminal and the prepaid service is delivered to the end-user. The revenue is recognized at the gross value, including margin, of the prepaid service to the Company, net of any value-added tax which is collected on behalf of the Mexican Revenue Authorities.

 

  Payment processing provided to end-users

 

The Company provides a secure means for end-users to pay for certain services, such as utilities through its kiosks. The Company earns either a fixed per-transaction fee or a fixed percentage of the service sold. The Company acts as a collection agent and recognizes the payment processing fee, net of any value-added taxes collected on behalf of the Mexican Revenue Authorities, when the funds are deposited into the kiosk and the customer has settled his liability or has acquired a prepaid service.

 

  Revenue from the sale of kiosks.

 

The Company imports, assembles and sell kiosks that are used to generate the revenues discussed above. Revenue is recognized on the full value of the kiosks sold, net of any valued added taxation collected on behalf of the Mexican Revenue Authorities, when the customer takes delivery of the kiosk and all the risks and rewards of ownership are passed to the customer.

 

The Company does not enter into any leasing of kiosks arrangements with customers and the Company does not generate any revenues from merchants who access its terminals as yet.